Language, Race and Culture

Language has a setting. The people that speak it belong to a race (or a number of races), that is, to a group which is set off by physical characteristics from other groups. Again, language does not exist apart from culture, that is, from the socially inherited assemblage of practices and beliefs that determines the […]

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How Languages Influence Each Other

Languages, like cultures, are rarely sufficient unto themselves. The necessities of intercourse bring the speakers of one language into direct or indirect contact with those of neighboring or culturally dominant languages. The intercourse may be friendly or hostile. It may move on the humdrum plane of business and trade relations or it may consist of […]

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Language as a Historical Product: Phonetic Law

I have preferred to take up in some detail the analysis of our hesitation in using a locution like “Whom did you see?” and to point to some of the English drifts, particular and general, that are implied by this hesitation than to discuss linguistic change in the abstract. What is true of the particular […]

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Language as a Historical Product: Drift

Every one knows that language is variable. Two individuals of the same generation and locality, speaking precisely the same dialect and moving in the same social circles, are never absolutely at one in their speech habits. A minute investigation of the speech of each individual would reveal countless differences of detail—in choice of words, in […]

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The Sounds of Language

We have seen that the mere phonetic framework of speech does not constitute the inner fact of language and that the single sound of articulated speech is not, as such, a linguistic element at all. For all that, speech is so inevitably bound up with sounds and their articulation that we can hardly avoid giving […]

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The Elements of Speech

We have more than once referred to the “elements of speech,” by which we understood, roughly speaking, what are ordinarily called “words.” We must now look more closely at these elements and acquaint ourselves with the stuff of language. The very simplest element of speech—and by “speech” we shall hence-forth mean the auditory system of […]

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Introductory: Language Defined

Speech is so familiar a feature of daily life that we rarely pause to define it. It seems as natural to man as walking, and only less so than breathing. Yet it needs but a moment’s reflection to convince us that this naturalness of speech is but an illusory feeling. The process of acquiring speech […]

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Language and Literature

Languages are more to us than systems of thought-transference. They are invisible garments that drape themselves about our spirit and give a predetermined form to all its symbolic expression. When the expression is of unusual significance, we call it literature. Art is so personal an expression that we do not like to feel that it […]

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Numbers 0-10 – Los números 0-10

One numeral Uno numeral – masculine Examples una cosa one thing Uno de esos, por favor. One of that, please. Hay veinticuatro horas en un día. There are twenty-four hours in one day. una hora one hour número uno number one un grado one degree Two numeral Dos numeral – masculine Examples dos libros two […]

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Food – Fruits & Vegetables – Comida – Fruta & Verdura

Corn noun Maíz noun – masculine Examples Yo prefiero la mazorca de maíz que el maíz cremoso. I prefer corn on the cob to creamed corn. mazorca de maíz corn on the cob Mi verdura favorita es la mazorca de maíz. My favorite vegetable is corn on the cob. maíz con farfolla corn with husk […]

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